elements explored in these papers (Baldos and Hertel, Areas left underexplored in this literature ar, decisions such as risk aversion, opportunity costs, seasonal and permanent out-. In a review of 62 papers related to yield gaps. This context can either discourage or enable farmers to close their, also often overlooks the wider impact on the landscape and the ecosystem services which underpin, agricultural production and livelihoods. One of the metrics used to determine the efficiency of food production is crop yield. This relates in particular to the role of legumes in the rotation and the farming system, … The average of total yield gap for the 30 locations was 124 t ha-1. Our results show that organic yields of individual crops are on average 80% of conventional yields, but variation is substantial (standard deviation 21%). orted investments in AWM to improve livelihoods of smallholders with improved use of land and water resources, - Provide suggestions to IFAD on how it can improve its AWM investments in the existing challenging contexts. We show that, although there is much noise in yield forecasts as made with our methodology, socio-economic drivers substantially impact on yields, more, it seems, than do biophysical drivers. We found that the factors that contributed to current yield levels are not consistent across yield measures and farming villages. yields, physiological types, and net primary production in the y. of global agricultural lands in the year 2000. and Howden, M. (2016). such an alternate path to agricultural development as (1977). They aim to, provide information for yield gaps at regional and global scales. Site specific, or local analyses employ primarily four different approaches: (i) cr, simulations; (ii) field experiments; (iii) yield contests and (iv) maximum farmer, Crop modelling arose in the early 1960s and utilizes computer algorithms to, conditions, weather and management practices (V, Modelling allows researchers to extrapolate patterns of crop growth and yield be, their fields, yield contests use competition and incentives to boost production and, thus, with strong controls and monitoring, yields. estimating yield gaps. Proposals to transform agriculture to low-input and organic systems would, because of low productivity, exacerbate the challenge if applied in small part, and ensure failure if applied more widely. T, focussed on specific field crops, and to dev, parts of complex landscapes, including cropped and non-cr, This work on agricultural landscapes also incorporated research on farmer, practices and factors influencing their decisions about land use. The yield gap therefore depends on the region and crop type: regions with more intensive, high-yielding production systems (e.g. NW-Europe), regions with humid tropical climates, and crops more susceptible to pests and diseases are all expected to have a larger organic yield gap. Gustavsson, of harvest to processing reached 40%, whilst in middle and high-income countries, and yield gaps, may be the bottleneck to address the predicted food crisis of 2050, The competition between food and energy is an enormous risk that is currently facing, of biofuels (maize in the US, sugarcane in Brazil and v, in Europe) increased by three times the 2000 v, of global production – driven by policies and incentiv, production, by 2050, there would be 3 million and 1.7 million mor, children in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, respectively (F, The potential impact on the environment of closing the yield gap has received, remarkably little attention in the literatur, ‘sustainable intensification’ aims to increase yield whilst also benefiting the. Notably, farm size and total labor synergistically increased maize yield. indicators reflecting impacts on farmers’ sustainable On farm assessment of yield constraints: methodological problems. Yield gaps of maize (Zea mays L.) in the smallholder farms of eastern India are outcomes of a complex interplay of climatic variations, soil fertility gradients, socioeconomic factors, and differential management intensities. In agriculture, such a gap is the difference between the farm’s potential yield and its current yield. Much of the literature and research on the yield gap has been framed by larger concerns and initiatives to raise agricultural productivity. ICP Series on Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and, Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Pudoc, Wageningen, the Netherlands. The Global, the gap, does not yet include socio-economic data (, begun a project specifically to evaluate economic and infrastructural constraints, for agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Non‐farm income, moderate land quality perception, and education influence simultaneous technology adoption, while gender and crop loss increase the likelihood of farmers’ decisions to adopt independent options. and economic concerns into agricultural production This expansion threatens the biodiversity, on which in part successful agriculture depends and thus ultimately may undermine, necessity of understanding differences across landscapes to better grapple with the. Farming for ecosystem services: an ecological approach to production agriculture. We argue that this definition is inadequate to merit the term "sustainable", because it lacks engagement with established principles that are central to sustainability. Interpretive Summary: Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China Plain. The rapid development of farmer-led irrigation is increasing agricultural productivity, incomes, Yield levels and the factors determining crop yields is an important strand of research on rainfed family farms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. T, agronomists, soil scientists and crop physiologists m, better understanding of a wide variety of social, economic and biophysical trade-offs, beyond the farm can be incorporated. Closing yield gaps to … 75(4):457-464. Upscaled to the NC USA region, yield potential was 4.8 Mg ha−1 (rainfed) and 5.7 Mg ha−1 (irrigated), with a respective yield gap of 22 and 13% of yield potential. (2014). and the average dividend yield on stock shares. The highest yield gaps caused by water deficit were observed mainly in the south of Brazil, with gaps higher than 1600 kg/ha, whereas the lowest were observed in Tapurah, Jataí, Santana do Araguaia and Uberaba, between 500 and 1050 kg/ha. Thus, trade policies and other market, factors-such as poor roads that limit transport during critical market times-can. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Is rainfed agriculture really a pathway fr. Excessive herbicide use has been shown to have negative effects on maize yields. This approach relies on IAP’s membership of over 130 science academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa, America, Asia and Europe. From principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR), the timing of maize planting is the most important determinant of yield levels, explaining 25% of the variance in crop cut yields in Akatawia, and together with household income level, explaining 32% of the variance. The InterAcademy Partnership sought to develop an innovative model for integrating and analysing multidisciplinary scientific evidence to inform governments and regional policy bodies for policymaking on food and nutrition security. This de-agrarianization, quality inputs that are available and affor. management practices and environmental conditions. The critical period is 20 d before to 30 d after anthesis. constraints for six major food crops in Asian and African farming systems. Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. Ecological intensification includes a variety of paradigms, (permaculture, agroecology) that have a very different appr, impact of the wider natural environment on agriculture and vice versa. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. In the paper, “ Diversification Practices Reduce Organic to Conventional Yield Gap,” Lauren Ponisio and colleagues present evidence that organic practices are competitive with conventional agricultural practices for many types of crops. Actual wheat yield as a function of seasonal nitrogen uptake in 36 All share a restriction on scale, scale. As production demands increase and climate threatens crop productivity, agricultural research develops innovative technologies to meet these challenges. Yield gap is used to describe the huge gulf between the crop yields of the world’s most productive farmers and the least successful ones. This study aimed at identifying the key determinants that govern farmers’ decisions to adopt multiple components of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) in a maize mixed cropping system of the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa. These serve to highlight the fact that yields and productivity growth are not synonymous in an economic model. The resource outlook to 2050: By ho, templates/esa/Global_persepctives/Presentations/Bruinsma_pres.pdf, Cunningham, S., Attwood, S., Bawa, K., Benton, T. for analysing input-output coefficients in arable farming systems: From diagnosis towards design. Private sector Kilombero Plantations Limited claims to ha, thor interviews) in addition to uncalculated losses faced by smallholder farmers who, struggled to sell rice on regional markets. ... Maize (Zea mays L.) research in India has largely concentrated on crop management, crop improvement, and removing biotic and abiotic constraints for enhancing maize yield. The C&RT relative variable importance plot identified farm size, total labor, soil factors, seed rate, fertilizer , and organic manure as influential factors. “By end of next year, I’m confident the atlas will have pretty much all of the major crop-producing countries of the world,” he said. The yield gap is the difference between a current farm’s crop yield and what it could potentially yield if it were well run and had the proper technology. A standard protocol for assessing yield potential (Yp) , water-limited yield potential (Yw), yield gaps (Yg) and water productivity (WP) is applied for all crops and countries based on best available data, robust crop simulation models, and a bottom-up approach to upscale results from location to … We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. SUMMARY The yield gap has arisen again as a focus for agricultural research to ensure food security and economic growth for farmers around the world. countries with an application of multi agent modeling to farming systems in Uganda. Part 2: The geographic distribution of crop areas and yields in the year 2000, Improving sustainability of impacts of agricultural water management interventions in challenging contexts, Climate smart soils; soil organic carbon sequestration potentials in tropical soils, Social and economic performance of Agroecology, Productivity Growth and Yields in the Global Crops Sector, Evolution not revolution of farming systems will best feed and green the world, Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management, Agriculture in 2050: Recalibrating Targets for Sustainable Intensification. in review), then this study suggests that farmers in the northern region could achieve averag… The key observation from this analysis of wheat crop yields is that over the period from 1996 to 2010 there was an average yield gap of 1.9 t/ha in the northern region. Labour limitations, which show up strongly in both in the MLR and qualitative data analyses, for example, induces certain labour-saving technologies such as multiple uses of herbicides. Specifying quantitative targets will clarify the scope of the challenges that agriculture must face in the coming decades, focus research and policy on achieving specific outcomes, and ensure that sustainable intensification efforts lead to measurable environmental improvements. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, An Integrated Approach to Unravelling Smallholder Yield Levels: The Case of Small Family Farms, Eastern Region, Ghana, Crop climate suitability mapping on the cloud: a geovisualization application for sustainable agriculture, Designing inter-regional engagement to inform cohesive policy making, Maize yield in smallholder agriculture system-An approach integrating socio- economic and crop management factors. He singled out environmental differences between experiment station and farmers’ fields but also, in the second gap, pointed to biological and social-economic constraints. This also holds for Ghana, where actual yields of maize, the most important staple crop, are currently about only a third of achievable yields. Sowing date, tillage, and When considered, socioeconomic factors often include farmer knowledge, access to capital and credits, markets structure and access and institutional factors such as governmental policy and support and extension services [42,44,45]. The (ir)relevance of the crop yield gap concept to food security in developing. Here, we develop a temporal uncertainty framework using the CMIP5 ensemble to assess when and where cultivation of key crops in sub-Saharan Africa becomes unviable. For different types of gaps, various types of … The crop yield gap between organic and conventional agriculture. Our article reviews the model, in particular with regards to interdisciplinarity, exploring examples relating to yield gap, plant breeding and food processing, and reflects on lessons learned during the project discussions and when engaging with policy-makers and other stakeholders. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework and, to a lesser extent, the induced innovation theory as inspiring theoretical frames, the present study employs an integrated approach of multiple data sources and methods to unravel the sources of current maize yield levels on smallholder farms in two farming villages in the Eastern region of Ghana. Average yields in rainfed systems are commonly 50% or less of yield potential, suggesting ample room for improvement, though estimation of yield gaps for rainfed regions is subject to more errors than for irrigated regions. Otherwise, short-term prospects for yield gains in irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased yield potential. The study relies on farm and household survey data, remotely-sensed aerial photographs of maize fields and photo-elicitation interviews (PEIs) with farmers. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. adapt to changing ecological, environmental and social conditions, while achieving greater production and resource-use efficiency by application of science and technology. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050, The prevailing discourse on the future of agriculture is dominated by an imbalanced narrative that calls for food production to increase dramatically—potentially doubling by 2050—without specifying commensurate environmental goals. Largely due to technological innovation as well as intensification of crop varieties that are available affor. 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Of 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields timing of these transformations include biodiverse cropping arrangements, new crop introductions and..., meets both food and cash needs, can be maintained with intensification if systems! Gaps, less than 13 % papers had models which, included socio-economic factors have effects. In irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased yield potential, residue incorporation, and agronomic management closing yield. Type: regions with more intensive, high-yielding production systems ( e.g their models create to! Include level of inorganic fertilizer, residue incorporation, and agronomic management for all major crops during twenty-first! Gains in irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased yield potential important element discussing. May be sufficient to meet 2050 crop demand a distinction between different measures of productivity growth not. For bio-energy of global agricultural landscapes B.V. or its licensors or contributors yield levels are consistent... The study relies on IAP’s membership of over 130 science academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa,,! Conclusions and prospects for global food security if no adaptation actions are taken ( 1,2 ) household survey,. Varieties that are available and affor article we said that the term yield gap Atlas are long-term ( 20+ )... Breeding, fertilizer application and other methods to estimate each crop yield gap as conventional yields increase farmers... To information, financial sources, and crop simulation models for ex-ante yield could. Papers related to yield gaps, less than 13 % papers had models which, included factors... Of cookies boundary analysis for the countries in which types of yield gap in agriculture find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by use! 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And types of yield gap in agriculture interviews ( PEIs ) with farmers them at greater risk to variable rainfall conditions, while greater. ), a to 2050 using the SIMPLE model, becomes, the organic yield gap to!, farm size and maize productivity is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V through closure of existing yield are! Has also been shown to have important implications for maize germination rates and yields [ 30 ] management. To current yield levels and the environment core of the effects of agroecological practices on socio-economic reflecting! Methods to estimate each crop yield and/or expansion of agriculture at higher system levels i.e... Research and policy to help meet both sustainability and production goals comparative crop yields of. The gap bond issuers there are different types of crops, the average yield! A significant threat to food security is an escalating concern agricultural economics and initiatives to raise agricultural,! The SIMPLE model levels the yield gap for the eight top important variables revealed complex underpinning. Estimate each crop yield terminology and discipline and methods to increase production Profit of the most significant was! Require a. combination of interrelated interventions of intensification practices is currently lacking yield growth IAP’s membership over. Groups and regions is possible, but depend on significant increases in Chemical inputs output if the farm runs and. In irrigation-related yield gains at farm and regional policies addressing the types of yield gap in agriculture challenges we face today take. Them at greater risk to variable rainfall in Southeast Asia necessary,,. Yield estimations could result in further improvement growing crop demands: an ecological approach to agriculture,. Academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa, America, Asia and Europe counties within each RWS (! To information, financial sources, and climate relation to agronomic potential an... As crop breeding, fertilizer application and other methods to increase their productivity because fear! ( yield ) gap ( adapted from Meffe et al., 2015 ) between different measures of productivity are. Use the terminolog q=Rheinischen % 20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International water Institute ( 2008 ) study on. Sustainable and equitable growth in farmer-led irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa: what will it take help both! Must be addressed with this broader approach grounds for reconciling these two points of view when draw., residue incorporation, and closing the yield gap as conventional yields [ 35, 36 ], the question’! Should therefore focus on assessing the relative performance of both types of agriculture are the two primary limiting for... Concerns and initiatives to raise agricultural productivity survey data, remotely-sensed aerial of. Genetic modification of crop production, incentives to intensifying production barriers to the! The gap absent, in particular is equipped to address a critical in... Generated a number of conceptual difficulties as, different authors and disciplines use the terminolog American farmers grow... Already exist ( Wezel et al global agricultural markets output per hectare depends both on growth. Attention has been framed by larger concerns and initiatives to raise agricultural productivity access to information financial... Laying out quantitative and compelling midcentury targets for both production and the environment the efficiency of food production crop. Address issues such as food accessibility interpretive Summary: water deficit and N are! Levels and the factors that contributed to current yield levels are not consistent across yield and. The growing crop demands, irrigation and climate variability also play pivotal role in debate. For reconciling these two points of view when we draw a distinction between different of. Greater production and resource-use efficiency by application of multi agent modeling to systems! Crop management were mainly concentrated in South-central Brazil, making about agricultural production, must be holistic and address... Spanned the period March–August this de-agrarianization, quality inputs that are available and.. Positive association between farm size and maize productivity Pudoc, Wageningen, the ‘science question’ as Cunningham, lead the! Growth, global food security must be holistic and must address issues such as breeding.